# NOTHINGNESS

What happens if you remove everything from a part of space. Remove all matter, remove all light, remove all atoms … everything! You would get a vacuum, nothingness. You would think that such nothingness would not be interesting. You are wrong. It still contains more stuff than you can imagine. In VERITAS we will study nothingness today:

Come lets fathom it, whatever may befall

IN this, your NOTHING, I may find my all.

-Goethe(Faust)

Imagine a pendulum… now make it stop. It will stop. We can say that the pendulum has lost all its evergy and has stopped oscillating. Now imagine a very very small pendulum(of atomic dimensions). This pendulum can loose energy BUT it can NEVER stop.

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle you cannot determine the precise value of position and momentum at the same time. If the pendulum stops you would know the values of position and momentum and that is impossible. A Quantum pendulum(a quantum oscillator) can NEVER stop!

What is electromagnetic radiation(light)? It is an oscillation of the Electric and Magnetic fields. And we have seen that oscillations cannot cease. Thus even if you remove all light from a part of space, you still have oscillations in their lowest energy states. So in a vacuum there is ALWAYS an electromagnetic field. You cannot remove this lowest state field. HOw much is this lowest state field? Light can be imagined as a set of oscillators(one for each possible value of frequency and direction of light). So there is not one lowest state oscillator in a vacuum. There are several. There is so much lowest state energy in a empty cup of coffee that it can boil all the oceans of the world(if we could tap this energy)!!!!!

Nothingness is brimming with electromagnetic radiation!!!

Why cannot we tap this lowest state energy( called zero point energy)? We cannot tap it because there is no energy below it. Imagine living on a plateau 1000 kms in height.

And you do not know if there is land below it. You would think that you live at “ground level”. You need to be able to fall to know that you are at a height. In the same way to tap a energy source you need a point below it and nothing is below this zero point energy.

The ordinary world of matter and energy rests on a HUGE HUGE foam of the quantum vacuum field.

Do we ever see the effects of this vacuum energy? Yes we do. I will explain some these effects of the zero point energy:

a) radiation from atoms: Imagine giving an atom some heat. The electrons will rise to their higher unstable energy levels. The electrons will stay there unless perturbed by something.  It is like carefully placing a ball on the top of a pole. Why should the ball fall if there is no disturbance? For electrons there is always the disturbance of this vacuum field and they always come back to their lower states and emit light. That is how your electric bulb works. This phenomenon is called spontaneous radiation.

2) Van Der Walls force: Sometimes the vacuum field outside 2 conductors is different from the field inside. THis causes the conductors to be pushed closer by the vacuum field outside. This is the Van Der Walls force.

3) Inertia: Latest research suggests that inertia may be bacause of this vacuum field. Some researchers have derived Newtons laws of motion from the quantum mechanics of the zero point energy!!!! Imagine that. When we studied Physics we always  started with Newton’s laws. We could never derive them. But this theory is still in a research phase.

See how much there is in nothingness.

Man is equally incapable of seeing the nothingness from which  he emerges and the infinity in which he is engulfed.

Blaise Pascal

kanwar

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Go, wondrous creature! mount where Science guides:

Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides:

Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,

Correct old time and regulate the Sun;

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# Some biology questions

Today’s VERITAS does not answer any questions.

There are some questions on biology that bother me a lot and I thought I should share them with you. ANy answers would be appreciated.

1) How does the body time its various functions.

The pulse beats at a certain rate. The heart beats

at a certain rate. If we do excercise the rate increases but

it comes back to normal after some time. The body knows what

is normal. How does it know this? The body clock is

pretty accurate. Is it a part of the brain ?

2) We have explained the origin of species using Darwin’s

theory of evolution:”survival of the fittest”. Man is

supposed to be the most advanced species. Yet man

reproduces at a very slow rate. Should evelution not have

selected a faster rate of reproduction to help evolve

the species faster. Insects produce generations within

a few months and yet they seem to be less advanced. By

Darwin’s theory, the animals that reproduce faster should

evolve more. Yet this does not seem to be true. Why?

3) Why do some people stammer? Is it a problem related to

the brain? Is it a synchronization issue between the

thoughts and the speech organs? There are three times

more male stammerers than there are females. Why?

( This question is very important for me because I

used to stammer myself and only stopped doing it a few

years ago). Why do people stop stammering?

4)   We seem to spend a lot of time sleeping. Surely there

must be a lot of things happening during this time.

What functions does the body need to perform and thus

requires sleep. Dont say that the body gets tired and thus

needs to sleep. The bosy is extremely strong. The heart

muscles pump blood at the same rate for 70-80 years

and they do not rest. So why does the rest of the body

need sleep? Sleep has do do with something in the brain.

Why do childrn sleep more? Why do advanced species like

Humans sleep more than simple species like ants or bacteria?

Why does not evolution select species who sleep less over

species who sleep more.

kanwar

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Go, wondrous creature! mount where Science guides:

Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides:

Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,

Correct old time and regulate the Sun;

|======================================================|