Monthly Archives: September 2002

Discovery of The Diabetes Treatment

 

     Diabetes is a widespread disease. All of us know someone or the other who has diabetes. There are an estimated 150 million million people with diabetes worldwide. People who suffer from this disease depend a lot on insulin injections to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. And insulin was discovered in the year 1921.

Before 1921 people with diabetes lived terrible lives. They were forced to starve because most foods increase the amount of sugar in the blood. And people who starved were prone to other illnesses. Most people died soon after getting diabetes.

    Who was the person who discoved insulin? Who was the scientist who gave hope to the suffering millions worldwide? Today in VERITAS we turn the pages of medical history to find how insulin was discovered. And we find a remarkable story of a very stubborn young doctor.

    Frederick Banting was born in the year 1891. He joined medical school and became a surgeon. He enlisted in the Medical Corps during world war I.

He suffered a serious injury during the war and his arm was about to be amputated.But he requested the doctor not to do it. The hands are very important for a surgeon. He was stubborn and he risked his life.

But everything went well and he recovered.

   After the war he started his own practice. He was not successful.

He decided to become a part time lecturer in a local college. He became the lecturer of pharmacology (This is to make you regret not having taken this up Anjum! :-)). Now Banting had very little knowledge of pharmacology so he had to study a lot. During his studies he became interested in the subject of diabetes. In textbooks diabetes was listed as “fatal disease-remedy unknown”. Doctors knew that the pancreas are responsible for burning and thus checking the sugar in the blood. Doctors even tried to feed diabetic patients the pancreas of animals but it did not work. There was a chemical in the pancreas that did all the work.

But nobody knew how to isolate this chemical or how to administer this chemical.

   Banting’s friend Joe Gilchrist was suffering from diabetes. He was starving himself and was dying a slow death. Bantin wanted to help.

Banting studied more and realized that scattered on the pancreas are small spots(islands) that shrink for people who suffer from diabetes.  He thought that somewhere in these islands lies the secret and the treatment of diabetes. (These islands are called Isles of Langerhans).

Banting decided to try and find the chemical that does all the sugar burning. He wanted to see what is inside these islands.

      He requested permission to experiment on dogs. He knew that scientists were trying experiments for years on the pancreas but they had all failed. But he was stubborn. He sold off his furniture and bought surgical equipment. He hired a fresh doctor Charles Best to assist him. They started experiments on dogs. From 10 the number of dogs rose to 91. But still no result (VERITAS readers, patience is a very important attribute of a scientist!). The problem was that as soon as they removed the pancreas to study the island chemical the island chemical was destroyed by an enzyme in the pancreas. You had to first kill the enzyme to be able to get to the chemical in the islands. No one knew how to do this.

     Banting found a way of doing this. He would tie the duct of the pancreas in living dogs. After a few weeks the pancreatic enzyme would die. At this time the pancreas can be removed and the chemical in the islands can be extracted. They tried this theory on the 92nd dog. They removed the dog’s pancreas. The dog started suffering from severe diabetes. At this time it was injected the island chamical taken out from the pancreas of another dog. And wow! the dog started barking and wagging its tail again! However the joy was shortlived. The dog died after 20 days due to severe diabetes. Banting had not given the dog enough of the island chemical.

   So Banting had found the chemical that would control diabetes but he did not know the right amount to be injected? And he did not know how to obtain large amounts of this chemical. More research was needed.

  This chemical was named insulin(latin for island chemical). And Banting found that cattle pancreas can yield a good supply of insulin.

     He now started experiments on human patients. His friend Gilchrist was one of the first patients on whom this new treatment was tried.

The patients were administered insulin everyday and results noted.

The patients suffered no illusions: this was still an experiment. A dosage of insulin taken in very small quantities is ineffective. The dosage taken in large quantities is dangerous and patient can die of convulsions. So the experiments was to find the right quantity to be administered. Banting’s research found the right quantity.

    Eminent people like King George V of England, HG Wells and Dr. George Minot were saved from death due to diabetes by Banting and his team. Thanks to the insulin Dr Minot was spared to discover an equally important treatment: liver treatment for pernicious anaemia.

    Banting became famous and received the Nobel Prize. One man’s stubbornness (it is no joke cutting up 92 dogs and waiting for weeks on each dog) helped millions live normal lives.

    One remarkabe thing about true scientists is that they spend their lives solving problems which they themselves do not know can be solved.

In Science you cannot make project plans… no .mpp files. You have to to base your work on passion and love for knowledge. The results may never come so you have to be happy in your constant pursuit of knowledge.

   (Most of the information for this VERITAS has been taken from:

the book: Living Biographies of Great Scientists by Henry Thomas and Dana Thomas, the Nobel Prize site (www.nobel.se) and the International Diabetes Foundation(www.idf.org))

kanwar

 

|======================================================|

  Go, wondrous creature! mount where Science guides:                 

  Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides:                 

  Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,                          

  Correct old time and regulate the Sun;                             

|======================================================|

QUARTZ

 

   Most of the material for today’s VERITAS has been collected from www.howstuffworks.com , IEEE’s frequency control site and Feynman Lectures on Physics volume II and references therein.

      We all wear/have worn quartz watches. Today in VERITAS we explore the properties of quartz which makes it ideal for watches.

Why quartz?

      In the year 1880 Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques discovered that when weight was put on a quartz crystal there  appeared a small electric cherge on the surface of the crystal. They named this phenomenon piezoelectricity( piezo is greek for push). In 1882 the reverse phenomenon was discovered: you apply some voltage to the quartz crystal, it deforms. The reason for this is that quartz(and several other crystals) are polar i.e the positive charges and the negative charges in the crystals are concentrated a little distance from each other. If left alone these charges are neutralized by charges in the air and there is no net cherge. However when a pressure is applied to the crystal the positive and negative areas move away from their balance positions and there appears a charge on the surface.

Similarly if you apply an electric voltage to the crystal the charge centres within the crystal experience a force and the crystal deforms.

So when you apply a voltage to a quartz crystal it experiences a force and the surface vibrates.

          Before people started using quartz in watches they used mechanical spring based clocks. You had to wind them up everyday and they were not so accurate.

      Quartz can be used to make the best oscillators and time keepers.

The reasons for this are :

1) As we have explained above, quartz is piezoelectric. So you can make it vibrate at a fixed frequency using a small battery.

2) Quartz is very hard and most substances have no effect on it. So even if you put your watch in water it will not get spoilt.

3) It is just everywhere(it is a variant of sand). It is the most common mineral on earth. So no shortage.

4) The frequency at which it vibrates depends only on its shape and its cut. So whichever frequency you desire can be produced by making a proper cut!

5) The frequency of its oscillation does not depend on temperature. So you will not loose/gain any time in the heat of Delhi summer or a Siberian winter.

   In most watches the quartz crystal is made to vibrate at 32,768 times a second. Can you image that! 33 Megahertz is very easy to say and we say it almost everyday. But imagine what happens to the crystal. The surface of the crystal has to move back and forth 32,768 times every second! And the quartz crystal in your watch does not go through this CRAZY rate of vibration for a second or a minute but for YEARS AND YEARS!  And after all this there is no change in the crystal!

      So the next time you look at your watch think about the poor wonderful fellow inside. As Einstein said “There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.”

kanwar

 

|======================================================|

  Go, wondrous creature! mount where Science guides:                 

  Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides:                 

  Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,                           

  Correct old time and regulate the Sun;                             

|======================================================|