Nothing exists except Atoms and Empty Space , Everything else is opinion
Today we will talk about the more “complicated” conservation laws .
These laws were discovered after people could make giant accelerators to “make” subatomic particles.
a) Baryon Family Number conservation : The larger/heavier elemantary
are called baryons . These are protons , sigma , neutron etc.
These particles are said to have a baryon number of 1 . Their
antiparticles are said to have a baryon number of -1 . The particles
that do not come in the baryon family have a baryon number of 0 .
proton + proton -> proton + sigma + kaon
is a valid physical phenomenon because there are 2 baryons on before
the “reaction” ( 2 protons ) and 2 after it ( proton and sigma ).
All baryons(except proton) undergo spontaneous disintegration into
lighter baryons . But the proton is the lightest baryon . So it cannot
decay into anything . This is a very remarkable thing . The proton
is a very heavy particle and there are so many particles lighter
than it . The proton is almost 1837 times the weight of an electron .
But since it is the lightest baryon it CANNOT decay . It is stable.
Its enourmous energy is locked in it forever .
The stability of the proton accounts for the stability of nucleus and
the reason why atoms , molecules etc are formed and they stay .
The reason why we have a world .
b) Electron Family number conservation:
The electron family consists of only 2 particles . The electron and
its antiparticle the neutrino .
This number is also conserved .
neuton -> proton + electron + neutrino
shows that there are 0 electron family particles on the LHS . And there
are 0 on the RHS ( because the electron has +1 electron family no
and the neutrino has -1 electron family no . So they cancel ) . The
neutron and proton are baryon and have 0 electron family no .
c) Muon Family number :
There are two particles in this family: muon and its antiparticle .
And their number is also conserved .
This completes our list of the 7 conservation laws . In any “reaction”
/ phenomenon all these conservation laws must hold .
There is another conservation law : The conservation of strangeness.
Some particles ( called strange particles 🙂 ) have a strangeness
number and it is partially conserved( conserved only in some processes
called “strong interactions” ) . We will not cover it here .